An urologist is a medical doctor that specializes in male and female urinary tract anatomy, function and pathological disease. The male reproductive system is often included in this specialty and trained professionals are able to diagnose and treat patients with these types of disorders. Organ systems treated by urologists include adrenal glands, kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and the penis. Urologists work closely with doctors that specialize in endocrinology, gastroenterology, gynecology, nephrology, oncology and pediatric surgery.Checkout Urology Roswell for more info.
Diseases and disorders that urologists treat include urinary tract infections, benign prostatic hyperplasia, cancer, precancerous lesions, congenital abnormalities, stress incontinence, reproductive system disorders, and many other surgical and non-surgical problems.
Urinary tract infections are caused by bacterial infestation at any point along the urinary tract. Common symptoms include burning, increased need to void, urgency, pain during urination or cloudy, discolored urine. The most common cause of infection is E. coli. Any level of bacteria in urine is viewed as abnormal, although only higher levels are usually treated. The most common type of urinary tract infection is acute bladder cystitis. If the infection ascends into the kidney, it becomes much more serious and is known as pyelonephritis. However, most urinary tract infections are relatively innocuous and easily treated with a short course of antibiotics prescribed through a family medicine doctor or urologist.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia is an increase in the size of the prostate gland and is common in almost all men as they age. Symptoms that indicate treatment may be required include hesitation during urination, urgency, inability to void, family history of prostate cancer, painful urination, or increased incidence of urinary tract infections. An urologist may test levels of prostate specific antigen when diagnosing or following benign prostatic hyperplasia course and prognosis. Treatment may involve something as simple as lifestyle modifications or more invasive transurethral prostate resection.
Urologists also diagnose and treat different forms of incontinence. Stress incontinence is the inability to retain urine in the bladder due to weakness of muscles that support the pelvic floor. Urine leakage often occurs when coughing, sneezing or laughing. If the pelvic floor is unable to support an increase in intra-abdominal pressure, the urethra may displace downward and allow urine to pass. The most common types of stress incontinence in women are due to physical changes during pregnancy and childbirth. Men are often afflicted with stress incontinence after radical or conservative prostatectomy surgery to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate cancer. Treatment ranges from minimally invasive weight loss and pelvic floor exercises to more extensive pessary or sling implantation and urethropexy surgery. An urologist may also prescribe alpha-1 adrenergic receptor blocker medication to help constrict muscles at the neck of the bladder and urethra.